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238                                  FLOBA INDICA.
3.  The strnctnrc of the rhizome does not deviate more from the Exogenous type
than that of many other Dicotyledons.    It does not belong to the Endogenous "type, Monocotyledon is known to have a similar rhizome,
4.  The venation of the leaves is reticulated, and their vernation is involute.
5.  The iloral organs are generally arranged upon u quaternary or quinary plan.
6.  Nt/mpfia&ceff present many direct affinities with both apocarpous and syncar-
pous Thalamiflora, as BamtnGitiacetet Berherlde<st Jlfur/uolittcea, and Papaveracea,
and they present no afliiiity whatever with any Monocotyludonous Orders.
7.  Systematic botanists are almost unanimously inclined to the nbovr view of their
immediate affinities.
There are very many interesting and curious points in the structure of Nym~
phfcacea quite apart from those we have dwelt upon, for which we must again refer
to Trecul and Planchon, confining our attention to such only as have a systematic
value. The floral,envelopes usually form an uninterrupted spiral from the sepals to
the inner stamens, the tranbition being gradual from one class of organs to the other,
as in jMaynoliacea. In NyMpJuciw the prevalent numbers are four sepals, succeeded
by several whorls of eight petals, four "opposite to and four alternate with the sepals,
and the stamens are similarly disposed j b'ut in some American species the eight
leaves of each whorl of stamens and petals are all opposite ono another: this arrange-
ment of parts is eminently characteristic of the allied Orders MwiisperMttraa!, Berbe-
rideer, Sabiaccrt, and LftrdizabaleG*
The disc or torus of Nt/Mphtfact'te is a most remarkable modification of the bases
of the pcrianthial leaves and apex of the peduncle. We cannot agree with Treetd in
denying the presence of a disc, though it is difficult to assign iis limits and origin.
The fact dwelt upon by that author, that iu the earliest state of development of the
flower, when the stamens and carpels appear as mere points, there is uo*space be-
tween the latter, appears to u$ to have no weight in this cose, for the carpels are
congenitally imueddcd in it, and it appears adherent to the walls of the ovary us
these are developed; it is not' a free organ, like the perigyuous ring of Aluueirt and
does not arrive at its* full development till the floral organs arc fully formed. Its
structure was first clearly explained to us by Bcntham, who has shown us that in
the fully formed fruit of all NympfHea the carpels are imbedded in the disc, which
rises in the centre of the compound ovary in the form of a cone or mamilla. The
ovaries ore hence gynobasic. The stamens are inserted into the disc at the base of
the ovaries, or all round the whorl of carpels; or in Vietoiic the disc is carried up
above the carpels, forming a ring upon which the stamens and petals are inserted. lu
Ga&Qiw&ea there is no disc, tho carpels arc free, and the stamens hypogynous. In
flvrclayit the four sepals arc inserted at the base of the flower, and tho petals and
stamens carried up upon the disc, which is adherent with the carpels to their summit,
whence the calyx is inferior and the corolla superior, ns in soivuispiide.a of the curious
Himalayan geaus Codonopsis of flampunulaceti!. Litfitly, in JSttryal? and Victoria
the whole perianth is superior, which may perhaps be explained by supposing the
flower to be snuk in the expanded apex of the peduncle, as in Uosa and perhaps the
Pomff.ce/rt and to which there ib a tendency in JZsr/tsr/folts.ia amongst PctpavemcM.
Uctweeu the stamens and carpels there tin: in KyntpfaM organs that have been re-
garded as incomplete stamina, ağ appendices to thn siignmtu/or as prolongations of
the stigmata themselves. These are always opposite U> the -itigmatic lines, and are
continuous with the disc below, so that their rent nat nro is ttot apparent in some
cases; they appear in some to be rudimentary stamina, as in, the American tfyniplwrt
of the Wanda group, though the stigmatic surface is prolonged on to their basoğ. Jn
J!Vr. Lotus they are very largo, and arc generally regarded as stignmtic appendages;
in JV. fwriffca and its allies they form short horns to the stigtnntic rays, and ean
only be theoretically, if at all, attributed to the presence of rudimentary stamina j
they may be analogous to the stigmatic appendages of J&tfischoUzia and Jfuwarutrwf,
or to tuo ajppcndages to the carpels of some other PapaverucM. This point \vonts
a systematic study.
The fact of the placenta being spread over the whole surface of the cavity of the